Announcing A Free, Tailorable, and Embeddable Generator of Icon Array Risk Graphics

by Brian Zikmund-Fisher on October 25, 2012

What’s an icon array graphic, you say?

Icon arrays (sometimes referred to as “pictographs”) are a type of visual display of risk statistics that use a matrix of icons (usually 100 or 1000) to represent an at-risk population. These displays simultaneously show both the number of expected events (e.g., deaths) and the number of expected non-events in that population.

An icon array graphic showing a 6% risk

As a result, icon arrays have several advantages over other types of visual risk displays.

  1. Icon arrays are inherently a frequency-based representation of risk. Research by Gigerenzer, Peters and others has shown that many people, especially the less numerate, respond differently to frequency representations of risk than they do to percentages.
  2. Icon arrays show the part-whole relationship clearly in both relative count and relative area, thus embodying one of the advantages of pie charts and providing a significant improvement over bar charts and numerical representations.
  3. Icon arrays can be read simply by counting icons. This enables icon arrays to be more precisely read than more commonly available graphics such as bar or pie charts. Recent research suggests that counting icons is particularly common among more numerate readers.

A 2-color icon array that could be used to show, for example, a 4% incremental risk on top of a 12% baseline risk

The research evidence (e.g., the papers referenced here) is clear: icon arrays are often more effective than bar or pie charts at communicating risk statistics and reducing cognitive biases in risk perceptions. This research shows that icon arrays improve not only people’s understanding of the exact numbers (“verbatim” knowledge) but also their “gist” understanding, which is particularly important since these more conceptual understandings can have significant influence on decision making.

At this point, you’re probably reading this and thinking to yourself, “yeah, good for you, but I’ll never use these graphics because I don’t have a personal graphics designer to make them.”

I sympathize.

In the future, someday, I hope that programs like Microsoft Excel ™ will enable you to make icon array displays just as easily as you can make bar, column, pie, or line graphs. Unfortunately, that day is not today.

Screenshot of

Last week, however, I was pleased to announce at the annual meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making an alternative way to make icon array graphics: ICONARRAY.COM is a free, online generator of icon array graphics that is a joint project of the University of Michigan Risk Science Center and the UM Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine. You can use it to make icon array graphics that are tailored to meet your particular needs. You can even download the images in either web- or publication-quality resolution. allows you to vary:

    • the level of risk shown (%)
    • the number of risks shown (up to 4 simultaneously)
    • the type of icon (blocks, ovals, or different types of person icons)
    • the colors used to represent events and non-events
    • titles
    • axis labels
    • icon size and spacing
    • icon matrix layout
    • legend text
    • and more….

    Moreover, we realize that many potential uses for icon arrays involve dynamic, web-based applications that will need different displays for each individual user. Thus, we are pleased to announce that we are providing embeddable code that allows developers to “drop in” an icon array by remotely calling the generator. enables you to embed icon arrays as easily as you embed YouTube videos.

    Are icon arrays right for every risk communication context? Certainly not. But they are an evidence-based standard that deserves broader use in many types of applications, ranging from online risk calculators to patient decision aids to educational curricula to improve numeracy and statistical literacy abilities.

    Unfortunately, people won’t use icon arrays if they don’t know about them.

    So let’s spread the word.

    Brian J. Zikmund-Fisher is an Assistant Professor of Health Behavior & Health Education at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and a member of the University of Michigan Risk Science Center and the Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine. He specializes in risk communication to inform health and medical decision making.

    { 19 comments… read them below or add one }

    David Mandel October 25, 2012 at 11:01 pm

    Thanks for this, Brian. Is there a way to change the number of units from 100 to, say, 1000? This could be useful for communicating very small (but potentially high-consequence) risks. I changed the 100 value in the box to 1000 but it still plots out of 100. Also, I found that a .2% risk uses up one unit out of 100, just as a 1% risk would.


    jack October 26, 2012 at 1:51 am

    Great work, Brian – especally the embedding potential. But I failed the test of working out how to show 4 outcomes simultaneously. Help!


    Brian Zikmund-Fisher October 26, 2012 at 6:22 am

    You _should_ be able to add new colors (risks) by clicking on the + tab within the advanced settings tab. Then enter a new second risk amount and hit enter. If this fails (we’re still debugging a bit), let me know.



    jack October 30, 2012 at 5:54 pm

    Thanks, will try now back in action.


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